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You're invited to apply for theCIS/Grifols 2016 Senior Fellowship Award!
The Clinical Immunology Society (CIS) and Grifols are pleased to announce the 2016 Senior Fellowship Award, which offers an award to one individual in the third or fourth year of their fellowship program with a concentration or focus on primary immunodeficiency. The 2016 Senior Fellowship Award will provide one individual a one-year grant in the amount of $30,000.Read more...
October 1, 2015
Editor: Andrew H. Lichtman, MD, PhD, Brigham & Women's Hospital
Editorial Board: Abul K. Abbas, MD, University of California, San Francisco | Carla J. Greenbaum, MD, Benaroya Research Institute | Andrew H. Lichtman, MD, PhD, Brigham & Women's Hospital
|Highlights from Recent Literature|
Dendritic Cell Immunotherapy is Safe and Effective in HLA-associated Rheumatoid Arthritis
A review of Helen Benham, et al. Citrullinated peptide dendritic cell immunotherapy in HLA risk genotype–positive rheumatoid arthritis patients. Sci. Transl. Med. 7, 290ra87 (2015).PMID: 26041704
Dendritic cells (DC) are a subset of antigen presenting cells that are critical in controlling T cell responses. Immature DC can tolerize T cells to specific antigens whereas mature dendritic cells tend to produce strong inflammatory responses. Mouse studies have demonstrated that immunomodulatory DC exposed to autoantigens can suppress experimental arthritis in an antigen specific manner. In this work, the authors describe the first human trials of an immunomodulatory DC therapy in rheumatoid arthritis.
|Highlights from Clinical Immunology, Official Journal of FOCIS|
TB and HIV
A review of: B Siddiqui, S. et al. Tuberculosis specific responses following therapy for TB: Impact of HIV co-infection. Clinical Immunology. 159: 1–12. 2015. PMID: 25889622.
CD4+ Th1 responses are essential for immune control of mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection. Not surprisingly, HIV infection impairs protective immune responses to MTB, and it is possible that MTB infection exacerbates HIV disease. The combined influences of HIV and MTB coinfection on the immune system are very complex and poorly understood. In this study, the authors looked at TB specific T cell responses in people in Mali with TB infection alone or with both MTB and HIV infection.
|Human Immunophenotyping Update|
Increasing the Number of Flow Cytometry Parameters
Holden T. Maecker, PhD, Stanford University School of Medicine
We are now a few years into the mass cytometry revolution, i.e., the explosive growth of the CyTOF platform (Ornatsky et al. 2010; Bendall et al. 2012) as an alternative to fluorescence flow cytometry. Compared to conventional flow cytometry, CyTOF offers many more parameters (currently over 40) with little or no spillover between detector channels. This is achieved by the replacement of fluorescent labels with heavy metal ion tags, and readout by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Despite some trade-offs in sensitivity, collection speed, and cell recovery, this promises to be the most radical change in multiparameter flow cytometry technology to date.
|Developments in Basic Immunology and Novel Therapies|
Resident Memory T Cells: Relevance to Human Inflammatory Disease
Rachael A Clark, MD, PhD, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School
Epithelial barrier tissues such as the skin, gut, lung and female reproductive tract separate the body from the environment and are the most common sites of pathogen exposure. There are distinct populations of memory T cells in the circulation that migrate preferentially to each of these epithelial barrier tissues. It was previously assumed that the T cells responsible for protecting barrier tissues from infection remained in the blood until infections developed. Upon infection, T cells were thought to migrate into the affected tissue, clear the infection and then either undergo apoptosis or migrate back into the bloodstream. However, studies in both humans and mice have now demonstrated that a population of nonrecirculating tissue resident memory T cells (TRM) are generated by infections and remain in tissues long-term thereafter, providing rapid on-site immune protection against known pathogens.
|Selected Recent Clinical Trial Results|
Submitted by Sandra Lord, MD, Benaroya Research Institute
A Phase 2 Trial of Guselkumab Versus Adalimumab for Plaque Psoriasis
Clinical Trial: Kenneth B Gordon, Kristina Callis Duffin, Robert Bissonnette, et al. A Phase 2 Trial of Guselkumab versus Adalimumab for Plaque Psoriasis, N Engl J Med 2015;373:136-44
Disease: Plaque Psoriasis
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